Thursday, November 8, 2012

Intel GMA3600 Driver for RHEL/CENTOS 5.x/6.x needed

Hi friends,
Intel GMA 3600 Driver for RHEL/CENTOS 5.x/6.x is required for Intel Atom N2600 processor.
Please help me guys if you have any link for downloading this driver.
You can paste your link in the comment section of this post or can mail me on averma18jan82@gmail.com.
Waiting for your response.
Thanks in advance.

Wednesday, November 7, 2012

ThinClient concepts - some queries about Thin Client technology

ThinClient concepts - some queries about Thin Client technology

Q1.     What are Thin Clients?
A1.     Typically, thin Clients are low powered computers that (strictly speaking) do not have a hard disk
          drive. Since there is no hard  disk drive, there is also no operating system.  And since these are 
          low powered systems, all processing is done on the server instead of the thin client itself. Certain
          types of thin clients (running on embedded XP or embedded Linux) may have full fledged OS
          capabilities complete with installed applications such as Micorsoft or Open Office and browsers such
          as Internet Explorer and/or Mozilla Firefox.

Q2.     If there is no hard disk drive and no operating system, how does it work? How does it boot up?
A2.     All Thin Clients boot up directly from a server which is running the operating system (Windows 
          2003 Server, Windows 2000 Advanced Server or even Linux).
          Thin Clients may boot either directly from the server via PXE boot and then connect to it or boot up
          from locally installed mini disk running Windows XP embedded (Win XPe), Windows CE embedded 
          (Win CEe) or Linux embedded (Le) and then connect to the server. Once connected to the server, the
          user gets the log in screen of the operating system running on the server.
          Please bear in mind that booting from a server and connecting to a server are two different
          processes, since you can have more than one server - one simply for booting up and the second
          or even a third or more for connecting to (where the applications are installed and processing
          takes place) depending upon architecture. If required, an enterprise can also go in for a hybrid
          architecture consisting of both Windows and Linux Terminal servers.

Q3.     Where are the various applications installed and user data stored?
A3.     All applications are installed on the connecting server and every user has his own "My
          Documents" folder created where his profile, documents, etc. are stored.

Q4.     If all files and documents of all users are stored on the same server on the same storage device,
          can one user not access or read the files of another user?
A4.     As stated above, every user has his own "My Documents" folder created. No user can access or
          even get into another user's "My Documents" folder unless specifically permitted to do so. This,
          of course, will require an NTFS file storge system and not the FAT32.

Q5.     What kind of applications and software can one install and run in a Thin Client environment?
A5.     All programs of everyday life can be used with Thin Clients...to name a few MS Office; various
          various browsers for surfing; e-mail clients like Outlook Express, Microsoft Outlook, etc.; ERP
          packages - including SAP; Coreldraw, Adobe Photoshop, Pagemaker, Tally, MS SQL based
          packages, chatting (using keyboard) programs and even open source and customized packages.

Q6.     Which software packages cannot be used?
A6.     Heavy graphical games, animation packages like Maya and such others that require a very fast
          screen refresh cannot be used.

Q7.    How many Thin Clients can be made to run on a single server?
A7.    This depends upon the server hardware configuration, the choice of operting system and the
         programs/applications that are installed on that particular server. Typically, a small office with
         10 Thin Clients can be well served by a P-IV machine with 1GB of RAM with Windows Server 2003
         Standard edition (that supports up to 4GB of RAM. Enterprise edition + SP2 supports upto 64GB.
         For increased RAM support, 64 bit versions are apt wherein the Standard edition + SP2 can support
         32GB while Enterprise + SP2 can support 2TB ). Increase the RAM to 2GB and the users to 20 to
         25 without any problem.
         For users on an enterprise level, a Xeon based server with dual or more processors, a minimum
         of 4GB RAM and redundancy on storage devices by way of RAID, network adaptors and power
         supply unit is recommended. Load balancing technology with additional servers prevents any
         single server from reaching critical levels.
         These are of course, broad guidelines. Actual server hardware and architecture will most
         definitely vary from case to case.

Q8.    Won't running so many Thin Clients on one server slow it down or kill it altogether?
A8.    No. This will not happen since the server hardware is sized taking into account the number of
         Thin Clients that are to be run and the software/applications to be installed on it.
         Besides, all processing is taking place electronically without any moving parts except the hard
         disk drive. Load balancing technology is employed to prevent server crashes.

Q9.    Can one install a printer on a Thin Client node?
A9.    Yes. Most printers can be installed on a Thin Client node either on a parallel port or USB port. The
         printer is physically installed on the Thin Client node but in configured on the server as a local printer
         printing to a TCP/IP port. In case of embedded systems, the printer in configured locally on the Thin
         Client itself.

Q10.  What devices can a Thin Client access locally?
A10.   Most devices like local hard disk drives, pen drives, floppy disk drives and optical drives can be
          accessed by the Thin Client without any problem.  For other devices like scanners, multi function
          devices and CD/DVD writer, if required on a Thin Client, our embedded systems are recommended,
          one that is running Win XPe.

Q11.  Will 'Touch Screens' work with Thin Clients?
A11.  Yes, very much with our Win XPe range.

Q12.  What about Thin Clients and Citrix?
A12.  Citrix metaframe server installed on the Remote Server will enable the Thin Clients to work across
            a relatively slow WAN link also by using the ICA protocol instead of Remote Desktop (RDP).

Q13.  What about DOS? Can I run DOS progams on my Thin Clients?
A13.  Most definitely, yes!! You can run DOS programs in FULL SCREEN.

Q14.  Can I have a hard disk on my Thin Client?
A14.  Of course!!! Though not required, but if you do have or want a hard disk, you have a dual boot system,
         whereby you can work either on the server or on the local hard disk.
 

Tuesday, October 23, 2012

A universal primer for rooting concepts on Android devices

A universal primer for rooting concepts on Android devices

WHO SHOULD READ THIS
If you don't know what rooting an Android phone means, and/or you want a clear understanding of the concepts of rooting, read on. My goal is to help you understand what rooting is, why you might consider rooting, and the potential risks it carries. 
This guide isnot intended to be a "how to root YOUR phone" guide, nor does it cover all the things you can do once rooted.


BACKGROUND:
Android is an operating system that runs on Linux. Linux is a UNIX-like operating system, and in the UNIX world, the administrator account is called "root." This root account has full admin access over the entire system. That system in the Android world is located in a partition on your phone's internal memory called /system.

When you turn on your phone, a program called the bootloader, a.k.a. HBOOT, is run. By default, one of the tasks of the bootloader is to protect certain partitions on your internal memory from being tampered with, either accidentally or intentionally. This protection is sometimes referred to as NAND* protection, NAND lock, S-ON (an HTC-specific term), or "locked bootloader." The aforementioned /system is one of the partitions that is protected by the bootloader.

* NAND refers to the type of flash memory used in the phone.

In a normal startup, the bootloader kicks off the operating system, and the result is Android loading up and presenting you with your phone's user interface. But the bootloader also has the ability to load a special program called recovery instead of the operating system. The name of this program suggests that its purpose is to provide tools that help you recover your phone should the internal memory contents get damaged. The recovery program can replace the contents of /system entirely, and it can also make backups of your entire internal memory. The recovery program lives in a partition called /recovery. This partition is also write-protected by the bootloader.


WHAT IS ROOTING
In the most literal definition of the word, rooting is giving your phone the ability to be granted root (admin) access to the system. To do this, a special program called su (a.k.a superuser) is called, and its job is to grant a user or application root access when requested. The su program is not factory-installed on your phone. The process of adding su to your system is what is known as rooting.

However, when most people refer to rooting, they are not necessarily referring to the literal definition of the word. Implicit in the rooting process is removing the NAND protection being enforced by the bootloader. The reason the bootloader aspect is significant in the rooting process is that without write access to the /system partition, much of the post-root functionality is still unavailable. In fact, to place su onto the /system partition, NAND protection must be disabled; otherwise the bootloader will prohibit the attempt to write the su program to /system. Removing this bootloader protection, a.k.a. NAND unlock, S-OFF, "unlocking the bootloader," allows for the modification of the /recovery partition, the /boot partition where the Linux kernel is stored, and the /hboot partition, where the bootloader program itself is stored. Rooting stands for freedom and openness. Once this security is removed, only then do you have full access to your phone.

In some devices, it's possible to add su to the system but not remove the NAND protection of the bootloader. This scenario is often referred to as a half-root. A full-root, therefore, is a phone where the NAND protection is removed, and su has been added to /system. Typically, a custom recovery program also replaces the stock recovery program as part of a full root.


HOW A PHONE GETS ROOTED
There is no single rooting method that works with all Android devices. Because each manufacturer uses its own bootloader program, which comes with its own unique security measures, a root exploit is often specific to a given device. Even within a given phone, there could be variations in the version of the firmware and operating system, which may require a unique exploit for each version. Therefore, when a phone is released or updated, there may be no known method of obtaining root. The process of rooting a phone is typically started when a phone hacker starts to analyze the components of the phone (both hardware and firmware) and starts to test for weaknesses or exploits that might disable the bootloader security, or grant temporary root privileges. There's never a guarantee that a phone can be cracked, but if an exploit is found, the person or team who discovered the exploit may create a rooting package or procedure and share with the rest of the community. For most people, rooting their phone is simply following in the footsteps of the pioneer(s) who have cleared the path already.

Not all phones can be fully rooted. Again, it comes down to the hardware/firmware used by the manufacturer. Motorola and HTC have released phones with additional security measures that make them very difficult to crack. While it appears that hackers have overcome HTC's latest defenses, the bootloader protection of some Motorola phones have yet to fall as of this writing. On the other hand, some manufacturers like Samsung and Sony are trending toward a more relaxed bootloader protection policy. And due to community pressure, HTC and Motorola have both issued statements that they plan to "unlock their bootloaders" in the near future.


A TYPICAL PROCESS FOR FULL-ROOT
The hallmark of a full-root is the removal of the bootloader's NAND protection. Therefore, this is typically the first objective of the root exploit. Once the NAND protection is gone, a custom recovery program is written to the /recovery partition, overwriting the default recovery program.

The custom recovery program contains more functionality than what is provided with the stock recovery program, and this is the reason it is included as part of the root exploit. The recovery program (sometimes referred to as the recovery image) will be an essential tool for the user once the phone is rooted. Not only can it be used to recover from bad configurations, it can also flash custom operating systems, allowing the user to customize their phone to a very high degree.

The final step is adding the su program to the /system partition. Two programs are added: the Linux-executable file called su, and an Android app called superuser. Android applications that request root privileges will present the request to the superuser app, and that app will call su only if the phone's user approves. You can think of the superuser app as a security guard between an Android app and su, and the guard will want authorization from the phone's user before allowing the app to obtain root privileges.


RISKS OF ROOTING
When a root exploit is initially found, it may or may not be stable. What this means is that it may not work reliably, or worse, it may cause a permanent failure of the phone, preventing it from booting up. A responsible phone hacker will therefore test the exploit extensively across many phones and modify the exploit as needed to make it stable. When the exploit has been proven to work safely and reliably, it is released to the public. However, this does not guarantee that the exploit will work with every single phone that it targets. The person or team that releases the exploit will make it clear that the exploit is "use at your own risk." Each person considering rooting their phone needs to understand this risk and decide whether it's worth proceeding or not.

Once the exploit has removed the NAND protection, the risk of permanently damaging your phone becomes very, very low. That's not to say that you can't get yourself into a bind, but with a little bit of know-how, rarely does a bad situation mean a bricked phone. If you haven't guessed already, a bricked phone is a phone that shares the qualities of a brick: it can look rectangular and do nothing.
As a preemptive safety measure, the custom recovery program installed as part of the root exploit contains a very useful tool called a NANDroid backup/restore. This utility backs up your internal memory and essentially is a save-state. No matter how you change your phone in the future, you can always bring your phone back to the state it was in at the time of the backup. It is highly recommended to make a NANDroid backup before flashing anything. 
 

Sunday, October 21, 2012

99Covers.com has awesome Facebook Covers!!

Some cool android apps on Google Play

Some cool and must have Android apps on Google Play website

ES Task Manager v 1.3.1
ES File Explorer v 1.6.2.1
SlideME Market v 4.5
OfficeSuite v 6.5.966
X-plore v 3.05
Facebook v 1.9.10
Total Commander v 1.03
Opera Mobile v 12.1
Chrome v 18.0.1025308
Kingsoft Office v 5.1
TeamViewer v 7.0.632
avast! Mobile Security v 2.0.2880
Nimbuzz v 2.2.2
WordWeb v 1.4
Adobe Reader v 10.4.0
Opera Mini v 7.5
Paytm v 2.1
Messenger v 2.0.4-release
NewsHunt v 3.42.16
RealPlayer v 1.1.1.0
ArchiDroid v 1.1.2
Drive v 1.1.4.29
Blogger v 1.0.7
My Tracks v 2.0.2
Gesture Search v 2.0.1
Orkut v 2.1.5
Reader v 1.1.8
Hotmail v 7.8.2.8.46.6837
SkyDrive v 1.0
BitTorrent v 1.10
VLC v 0.0.6
┬ÁTorrent v 1.8
WhatsApp v 2.8.5732
QQ Browser v 3.2.0.107
Maxthon Mobile Browser v 2.7.3.1000
File Manager v 1.1
Task Killer v 1.0.1
PhoneCopy v 107
FullonSms v 2.2 Beta
my airtel v 1.1
UCBrowser v 8.4.1
PicSay v 1.4.0.1
TimesJobs v 3.0.1
Naukri.com v 1.3
Monster Jobs v 1.0.4
Job Search v 1.7
Viber v 2.2.3.109
Missed Call v 1.1
Android System Information v 3.3
Quikr Classifieds v 2.2
Bookmarks Backup v 1.4
Aviary v 2.1.91
Naaptol v 1.0.0.4
Justdial v 1.7
PicsArt v 3.0.8
One Browser v 3.5
Tango v 2.2.29122
OLX v 2.0.2
eFile v 1.69
LinkedIn v 2.5.2
Wikipedia v 1.2.1

I have tested these apps on my Samsung Galaxy Chat B5330 and all of them are working perfectly on  Android Ice Cream Sandwitch 4.0.4.

Friday, October 5, 2012

Wireless Standards - 802.11b 802.11a 802.11g and 802.11n


Wireless Standards - 802.11b 802.11a 802.11g and 802.11n...
The 802.11 family explained…

Many products conform to the 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, or 802.11n wireless standards collectively known as Wi-Fi technologies. Additionally, Bluetooth and various other non-Wi-Fi technologies also exist, each also designed for specific networking applications.

This article describes the Wi-Fi and related technologies, comparing and contrasting them to help you make educated network building decisions.

802.11
In 1997, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) created the first WLAN standard. They called it 802.11 after the name of the group formed to oversee its development. Unfortunately, 802.11 only supported a maximum network bandwidth of 2 Mbps - too slow for most applications.
For this reason, ordinary 802.11 wireless products are no longer manufactured.

802.11b
IEEE expanded on the original 802.11 standard in July 1999, creating the 802.11b specification. 802.11b supports bandwidth up to 11 Mbps, comparable to traditional Ethernet.
802.11b uses the same unregulated radio signaling frequency (2.4 GHz) as the original 802.11 standard. Vendors often prefer using these frequencies to lower their production costs. Being unregulated, 802.11b gear can incur interference from microwave ovens, cordless phones, and other appliances using the same 2.4 GHz range. However, by installing 802.11b gear a reasonable distance from other appliances, interference can easily be avoided.
Pros of 802.11b - lowest cost; signal range is good and not easily obstructed
Cons of 802.11b - slowest maximum speed; home appliances may interfere on the unregulated frequency band

802.11a
While 802.11b was in development, IEEE created a second extension to the original 802.11 standard called 802.11a. Because 802.11b gained in popularity much faster than did 802.11a, some folks believe that 802.11a was created after 802.11b. In fact, 802.11a was created at the same time.
Due to its higher cost, 802.11a is usually found on business networks whereas 802.11b better serves the home market.
802.11a supports bandwidth up to 54 Mbps and signals in a regulated frequency spectrum around 5 GHz. This higher frequency compared to 802.11b shortens the range of 802.11a networks. The higher frequency also means 802.11a signals have more difficulty penetrating walls and other obstructions.
Because 802.11a and 802.11b utilize different frequencies, the two technologies are incompatible with each other. Some vendors offer hybrid 802.11a/b network gear, but these products merely implement the two standards side by side (each connected devices must use one or the other).
Pros of 802.11a - fast maximum speed; regulated frequencies prevent signal interference from other devices
Cons of 802.11a - highest cost; shorter range signal that is more easily obstructed

802.11g
In 2002 and 2003, WLAN products supporting a newer standard called 802.11g emerged on the market. 802.11g attempts to combine the best of both 802.11a and 802.11b. 802.11g supports bandwidth up to 54 Mbps, and it uses the 2.4 Ghz frequency for greater range. 802.11g is backwards compatible with 802.11b, meaning that 802.11g access points will work with 802.11b wireless network adapters and vice versa.
Pros of 802.11g - fast maximum speed; signal range is good and not easily obstructed
Cons of 802.11g - costs more than 802.11b; appliances may interfere on the unregulated signal frequency

802.11n
The newest IEEE standard in the Wi-Fi category is 802.11n. It was designed to improve on 802.11g in the amount of bandwidth supported by utilizing multiple wireless signals and antennas (called MIMO technology) instead of one.
When this standard is finalized, 802.11n connections should support data rates of over 100 Mbps. 802.11n also offers somewhat better range over earlier Wi-Fi standards due to its increased signal intensity. 802.11n equipment will be backward compatible with 802.11g gear.
Pros of 802.11n - fastest maximum speed and best signal range; more resistant to signal interference from outside sources
Cons of 802.11n - standard is not yet finalized; costs more than 802.11g; the use of multiple signals may greatly interfere with nearby 802.11b/g based networks.

What About Bluetooth and the Rest?
Aside from these four general-purpose Wi-Fi standards, several other related wireless network technologies exist.
Other IEEE 802.11 working group standards like 802.11h and 802.11j are extensions or offshoots of Wi-Fi technology that each serve a very specific purpose.
Bluetooth is an alternative wireless network technology that followed a different development path than the 802.11 family. Bluetooth supports a very short range (approximately 10 meters) and relatively low bandwidth (1-3 Mbps in practice) designed for low-power network devices like  handhelds. The low manufacturing cost of Bluetooth hardware also appeals to industry vendors. You can readily find Bluetooth in the netowrking of PDAs or cell phones with PCs, but it is rarely used for general-purpose WLAN networking due to the range and speed considerations.

WiMax also was developed separately from Wi-Fi. WiMax is designed for long-range networking (spanning miles or kilometers) as opposed to local area wireless networking.

get a better resolution on your standard 10 inch netbook


get a better resolution on your standard 10 inch netbook.

Get 1024x768 or higher resolution on your netbook via this registry hack. Most of the 10 inch netbooks available right now on the market ship with a standard resolution of 1024 x 600 px.

Many netbooks come with a default 1024x600 pixels (or similar) small screen resolution, which can cause problems in some apps or a lot of awkward scrolling. If you want to increase the amount of screen real estate you have on your netbook or be able to use apps that require higher-resolution displays (such as the Metro-style apps in the Windows 8 Developer Preview), you might be able to change a registry setting called "Display1_DownScalingSupported" in Windows to get options for higher resolutions.

Here's how to search for the setting and change it:

  • Go to the Start menu and type in regedit in the search box, then hit Enter.
  • Scroll up on the left pane to make sure you are at the very top of the tree.
  • At the top menu, go to Edit then Find... and search for "Display1_DownScalingSupported"Change each instance you find (you'll likely find 2 results for this) from "0" to "1". 
  • Make sure you change every found instance, because otherwise the hack won't work (in my experience).
  • Once done, restart the system.
  • When your system has restarted, when you right-click on your desktop and choose to change your screen resolution, you should now see options for 1024x768 as well as 1152x864 resolutions for your netbook, in addition to your previous resolutions.
  • Keep in mind that while this registry hack has been shown to work with a number of netbooks from different manufacturers, it might not work with all netbooks, and modifying your registry is always something you do at your own risk. 


It's always a good idea to backup your registry before making any changes by going to the file menu and exporting it.

(Note: Changing your default screen resolution on your netbook will most likely make it look a bit stretched out. You can try going into the advanced display properties for the Intel Graphics Media Accelerator, assuming you have an Intel GMA, where you have an option to set the aspect ratio to "maintain aspect ratio," but this has never seemed to work or apply for me; still, worth a try.)

Please post any suggestions or comments.

Friday, August 31, 2012

How to enter the BIOS setup - Combination keys

Computer manufacturer's have specific key(s) or key combinations that you have to press when your PC boots up, in order to enter the BIOS setup and alter your system's settings.

This article contains these key(s) or key combinations that let you enter your BIOS Setup Utility, listed with regard to the computer manufacturer and/or the BIOS version you have. Sometimes there are two or more keys or key combinations that will work, while in other cases models from the same manufacturer have different keys assigned for this function.

If you do not get it right from the first time, this might be due to one of the following reasons:
a. You are pressing the right key(s), but you are not pressing them fast enough or long enough.
b. You need to try a different key or key combination, from the other ones for the same computer or BIOS manufacturer.
c. You are using a USB keyboard in an older BIOS which does not support it; try again using a PS/2 keyboard.
d. You have a keyboard with dual-function keys, where you need to press F-Lock in order to have the F keys working. Same possibility might apply in keyboards like these, with other keys as well; e.g. Pause or Insert. Some laptops have an Fn key that works in a way similar to F-Lock. So, before trying a different key combination, please make sure you have your keyboard set correctly for the current one.

I. COMPUTER MANUFACTURERS

Acer - Ctrl+Alt+Esc
Acer - F2
ALR PC - Ctrl+Alt+Esc
ALR PC - F2
AST - Ctrl+Alt+Esc
Compaq - F10 when the cursor is blinking in the upper right corner of the screen
Dell - F1
Dell - Del
Dell - press Reset twice
Dell - Ctrl+Alt+Enter (on older models)
Gateway 2000 - F1
Hewlett Packard - F1
IBM - Hold down both mouse buttons during bootup (on older models)
IBM - F1 (Aptiva)
IBM - Press both mouse buttons repeatedly during bootup (Aptiva)
IBM - Ctrl+Alt+Ins after Ctrl+Alt+Del (PS/2)
IBM - Ins (PS/2 with reference partition)
IBM - Ctrl+Alt+? (some PS/2s, such as 75 and 90)
IBM - Ctrl+Ins when pointer at top right of screen (some PS/2s)
IBM - Ctrl+Alt+Ins when cursor is in upper-right corner of screen (ThinkPad using IBM BIOS - early models)
IBM - Press and hold F1 key while powering-up laptop (ThinkPad using IBM BIOS - later models)
IBM - Ctrl+Alt+F11 from DOS prompt (ThinkPad using Phoenix BIOS)
NEC - F2
NEC - Press and hold F1 key while powering-up laptop (Versa Notebook)
Packard Bell - F1
Packard Bell - F2
Packard Bell] - Ctrl+Alt+S
Sharp - F2 (Laptop 9020)
Sony - F3 while you powering up the PC, then F2 or F1
Tandon - Ctrl+Shift+Esc
Toshiba - Press Esc during boot, then F1
Toshiba - F1 (models using Phoenix BIOS, late model PS/1 Value Point and 330s)
Toshiba - Hold down the left shift key during boot (Notebooks)
Olivetti - Shift+Ctrl+Alt+NumPadDel (PC Pro)
Zenith - Ctrl+Alt+Ins

II. BIOS MANUFACTURERS

AMI BIOS - Del
AMI BIOS - F1
AMI BIOS - F2
Award BIOS - Del
Award BIOS - Ctrl+Alt+Esc
DTK BIOS - Esc
Phoenix BIOS - F1
Phoenix BIOS - F2
Phoenix BIOS - Ctrl+Alt+Esc
Phoenix BIOS - Ctrl+Alt+S
Phoenix BIOS - Ctrl+S
Phoenix BIOS - Ctrl+Alt+Ins

III. GENERIC PC / BIOS

When you don't know any particulars for the computer or BIOS in question, or you don't see it in the lists above, start your attempts from the following key combinations:

Del
F1
F2
F10
Ctrl+Alt+S
Ctrl+Alt+Enter
Ctrl+Alt+Ins
Ctrl+Alt+Esc
Ctrl+Alt+NumPad[+]
Ctrl+Esc

Thursday, July 12, 2012

156 Useful Run Commands for Windows

156 Useful Run Commands

To Access… Run Command
Accessibility Controls access.cpl
Accessibility Wizard accwiz
Add Hardware Wizard hdwwiz.cpl
Add/Remove Programs appwiz.cpl
Administrative Tools control admintools
Adobe Acrobat (if installed) acrobat
Adobe Designer (if installed) formdesigner
Adobe Distiller (if installed) acrodist
Adobe ImageReady (if installed) imageready
Adobe Photoshop (if installed) photoshop
Automatic Updates wuaucpl.cpl
Bluetooth Transfer Wizard fsquirt
Calculator calc
Certificate Manager certmgr.msc
Character Map charmap
Check Disk Utility chkdsk
Clipboard Viewer clipbrd
Command Prompt cmd
Component Services dcomcnfg
Computer Management compmgmt.msc
Control Panel control
Date and Time Properties timedate.cpl
DDE Shares ddeshare
Device Manager devmgmt.msc
Direct X Control Panel (if installed)* directx.cpl
Direct X Troubleshooter dxdiag
Disk Cleanup Utility cleanmgr
Disk Defragment dfrg.msc
Disk Management diskmgmt.msc
Disk Partition Manager diskpart
Display Properties control desktop
Display Properties desk.cpl
Display Properties (w/Appearance Tab Preselected) control color
Dr. Watson System Troubleshooting Utility drwtsn32
Driver Verifier Utility verifier
Event Viewer eventvwr.msc
Files and Settings Transfer Tool migwiz
File Signature Verification Tool sigverif
Findfast findfast.cpl
Firefox (if installed) firefox
Folders Properties folders
Fonts control fonts
Fonts Folder fonts
Free Cell Card Game freecell
Game Controllers joy.cpl
Group Policy Editor (XP Prof) gpedit.msc
Hearts Card Game mshearts
Help and Support helpctr
HyperTerminal hypertrm
Iexpress Wizard iexpress
Indexing Service ciadv.msc
Internet Connection Wizard icwconn1
Internet Explorer iexplore
Internet Properties inetcpl.cpl
Internet Setup Wizard inetwiz
IP Configuration (Display Connection Configuration) ipconfig /all
IP Configuration (Display DNS Cache Contents) ipconfig /displaydns
IP Configuration (Delete DNS Cache Contents) ipconfig /flushdns
IP Configuration (Release All Connections) ipconfig /release
IP Configuration (Renew All Connections) ipconfig /renew
IP Configuration (Refreshes DHCP & Re-Registers DNS) ipconfig /registerdns
IP Configuration (Display DHCP Class ID) ipconfig /showclassid
IP Configuration (Modifies DHCP Class ID) ipconfig /setclassid
Java Control Panel (if installed) jpicpl32.cpl
Java Control Panel (if installed) javaws
Keyboard Properties control keyboard
Local Security Settings secpol.msc
Local Users and Groups lusrmgr.msc
Logs You Out Of Windows logoff
Malicious Software Removal Tool mrt
Microsoft Access (if installed) msaccess
Microsoft Chat winchat
Microsoft Excel (if installed) excel
Microsoft Frontpage (if installed) frontpg
Microsoft Movie Maker moviemk
Microsoft Paint mspaint
Microsoft Powerpoint (if installed) powerpnt
Microsoft Word (if installed) winword
Microsoft Syncronization Tool mobsync
Minesweeper Game winmine
Mouse Properties control mouse
Mouse Properties main.cpl
Nero (if installed) nero
Netmeeting conf
Network Connections control netconnections
Network Connections ncpa.cpl
Network Setup Wizard netsetup.cpl
Notepad notepad
Nview Desktop Manager (if installed) nvtuicpl.cpl
Object Packager packager
ODBC Data Source Administrator odbccp32.cpl
On Screen Keyboard osk
Opens AC3 Filter (if installed) ac3filter.cpl
Outlook Express msimn
Paint pbrush
Password Properties password.cpl
Performance Monitor perfmon.msc
Performance Monitor perfmon
Phone and Modem Options telephon.cpl
Phone Dialer dialer
Pinball Game pinball
Power Configuration powercfg.cpl
Printers and Faxes control printers
Printers Folder printers
Private Character Editor eudcedit
Quicktime (If Installed) QuickTime.cpl
Quicktime Player (if installed) quicktimeplayer
Real Player (if installed) realplay
Regional Settings intl.cpl
Registry Editor regedit
Registry Editor regedit32
Remote Access Phonebook rasphone
Remote Desktop mstsc
Removable Storage ntmsmgr.msc
Removable Storage Operator Requests ntmsoprq.msc
Resultant Set of Policy (XP Prof) rsop.msc
Scanners and Cameras sticpl.cpl
Scheduled Tasks control schedtasks
Security Center wscui.cpl
Services services.msc
Shared Folders fsmgmt.msc
Shuts Down Windows shutdown
Sounds and Audio mmsys.cpl
Spider Solitare Card Game spider
SQL Client Configuration cliconfg
System Configuration Editor sysedit
System Configuration Utility msconfig
System File Checker Utility (Scan Immediately) sfc /scannow
System File Checker Utility (Scan Once At The Next Boot) sfc /scanonce
System File Checker Utility (Scan On Every Boot) sfc /scanboot
System File Checker Utility (Return Scan Setting To Default) sfc /revert
System File Checker Utility (Purge File Cache) sfc /purgecache
System File Checker Utility (Sets Cache Size to size x) sfc /cachesize=x
System Information msinfo32
System Properties sysdm.cpl
Task Manager taskmgr
TCP Tester tcptest
Telnet Client telnet
Tweak UI (if installed) tweakui
User Account Management nusrmgr.cpl
Utility Manager utilman
Windows Address Book wab
Windows Address Book Import Utility wabmig
Windows Backup Utility (if installed) ntbackup
Windows Explorer explorer
Windows Firewall firewall.cpl
Windows Magnifier magnify
Windows Management Infrastructure wmimgmt.msc
Windows Media Player wmplayer
Windows Messenger msmsgs
Windows Picture Import Wizard (need camera connected) wiaacmgr
Windows System Security Tool syskey
Windows Update Launches wupdmgr
Windows Version (to show which version of windows) winver
Windows XP Tour Wizard tourstart
Wordpad write

Saturday, June 30, 2012

Computer POST and beep codes

Computer POST and beep codes

AMI BIOS beep codes
Below are the AMI BIOS Beep codes that can occur. However, because of the wide variety of different computer manufacturers with this BIOS, the beep codes may vary.Beep Code Descriptions
1 short DRAM refresh failure
2 short Parity circuit failure
3 short Base 64K RAM failure
4 short System timer failure
5 short Process failure
6 short Keyboard controller Gate A20 error
7 short Virtual mode exception error
8 short Display memory Read/Write test failure
9 short ROM BIOS checksum failure
10 short CMOS shutdown Read/Write error
11 short Cache Memory error
1 long, 3 short Conventional/Extended memory failure
1 long, 8 short Display/Retrace test failed


AWARD BIOS beep codes
Below are Award BIOS Beep codes that can occur. However, because of the wide variety of different computer manufacturers with this BIOS, the beep codes may vary.Beep Code Description

1 long, 2 short Indicates a video error has occurred and the BIOS cannot initialize the video screen to display any additional information
Any other beep(s) RAM problem.
If any other correctable hardware issues, the BIOS will display a message.


IBM BIOS beep codes
Below are general IBM BIOS Beep codes that can occur. However, because of the wide variety of models shipping with this BIOS, the beep codes may vary.Beep Code Description
No Beeps No Power, Loose Card, or Short.
1 Short Beep Normal POST, computer is ok.
2 Short Beep POST error, review screen for error code.
Continuous Beep No Power, Loose Card, or Short.
Repeating Short Beep No Power, Loose Card, or Short.
One Long and one Short Beep Motherboard issue.
One Long and Two Short Beeps Video (Mono/CGA Display Circuitry) issue.
One Long and Three Short Beeps. Video (EGA) Display Circuitry.
Three Long Beeps Keyboard or Keyboard card error.
One Beep, Blank or Incorrect Display Video Display Circuitry.


Macintosh startup tonesTones Error
Error Tone. (two sets of different tones) Problem with logic board or SCSI bus.
Startup tone, drive spins, no video Problem with video controller.
Powers on, no tone. Logic board problem.
High Tone, four higher tones. Problem with SIMM.


Phoenix BIOS beep codes
Below are the beep codes for Phoenix BIOS Q3.07 OR 4.XBeep Code Description and what to check
1-1-1-3 Verify Real Mode.
1-1-2-1 Get CPU type.
1-1-2-3 Initialize system hardware.
1-1-3-1 Initialize chipset registers with initial POST values.
1-1-3-2 Set in POST flag.
1-1-3-3 Initialize CPU registers.
1-1-4-1 Initialize cache to initial POST values.
1-1-4-3 Initialize I/O.
1-2-1-1 Initialize Power Management.
1-2-1-2 Load alternate registers with initial POST values.
1-2-1-3 Jump to UserPatch0.
1-2-2-1 Initialize keyboard controller.
1-2-2-3 BIOS ROM checksum.
1-2-3-1 8254 timer initialization.
1-2-3-3 8237 DMA controller initialization.
1-2-4-1 Reset Programmable Interrupt Controller.
1-3-1-1 Test DRAM refresh.
1-3-1-3 Test 8742 Keyboard Controller.
1-3-2-1 Set ES segment to register to 4 GB.
1-3-3-1 28 Autosize DRAM.
1-3-3-3 Clear 512K base RAM.
1-3-4-1 Test 512 base address lines.
1-3-4-3 Test 512K base memory.
1-4-1-3 Test CPU bus-clock frequency.
1-4-2-4 Reinitialize the chipset.
1-4-3-1 Shadow system BIOS ROM.
1-4-3-2 Reinitialize the cache.
1-4-3-3 Autosize cache.
1-4-4-1 Configure advanced chipset registers.
1-4-4-2 Load alternate registers with CMOS values.
2-1-1-1 Set Initial CPU speed.
2-1-1-3 Initialize interrupt vectors.
2-1-2-1 Initialize BIOS interrupts.
2-1-2-3 Check ROM copyright notice.
2-1-2-4 Initialize manager for PCI Options ROMs.
2-1-3-1 Check video configuration against CMOS.
2-1-3-2 Initialize PCI bus and devices.
2-1-3-3 Initialize all video adapters in system.
2-1-4-1 Shadow video BIOS ROM.
2-1-4-3 Display copyright notice.
2-2-1-1 Display CPU type and speed.
2-2-1-3 Test keyboard.
2-2-2-1 Set key click if enabled.
2-2-2-3 56 Enable keyboard.
2-2-3-1 Test for unexpected interrupts.
2-2-3-3 Display prompt Press F2 to enter SETUP.
2-2-4-1 Test RAM between 512 and 640k.
2-3-1-1 Test expanded memory.
2-3-1-3 Test extended memory address lines.
2-3-2-1 Jump to UserPatch1.
2-3-2-3 Configure advanced cache registers.
2-3-3-1 Enable external and CPU caches.
2-3-3-3 Display external cache size.
2-3-4-1 Display shadow message.
2-3-4-3 Display non-disposable segments.
2-4-1-1 Display error messages.
2-4-1-3 Check for configuration errors.
2-4-2-1 Test real-time clock.
2-4-2-3 Check for keyboard errors
2-4-4-1 Set up hardware interrupts vectors.
2-4-4-3 Test coprocessor if present.
3-1-1-1 Disable onboard I/O ports.
3-1-1-3 Detect and install external RS232 ports.
3-1-2-1 Detect and install external parallel ports.
3-1-2-3 Re-initialize onboard I/O ports.
3-1-3-1 Initialize BIOS Data Area.
3-1-3-3 Initialize Extended BIOS Data Area.
3-1-4-1 Initialize floppy controller.
3-2-1-1 Initialize hard-disk controller.
3-2-1-2 Initialize local-bus hard-disk controller.
3-2-1-3 Jump to UserPatch2.
3-2-2-1 Disable A20 address line.
3-2-2-3 Clear huge ES segment register.
3-2-3-1 Search for option ROMs.
3-2-3-3 Shadow option ROMs.
3-2-4-1 Set up Power Management.
3-2-4-3 Enable hardware interrupts.
3-3-1-1 Set time of day.
3-3-1-3 Check key lock.
3-3-3-1 Erase F2 prompt.
3-3-3-3 Scan for F2 key stroke.
3-3-4-1 Enter SETUP.
3-3-4-3 Clear in-POST flag.
3-4-1-1 Check for errors
3-4-1-3 POST done--prepare to boot operating system.
3-4-2-1 One beep.
3-4-2-3 Check password (optional).
3-4-3-1 Clear global descriptor table.
3-4-4-1 Clear parity checkers.
3-4-4-3 Clear screen (optional).
3-4-4-4 Check virus and backup reminders.
4-1-1-1 Try to boot with INT 19.
4-2-1-1 Interrupt handler error.
4-2-1-3 Unknown interrupt error.
4-2-2-1 Pending interrupt error.
4-2-2-3 Initialize option ROM error.
4-2-3-1 Shutdown error.
4-2-3-3 Extended Block Move.
4-2-4-1 Shutdown 10 error.
4-3-1-3 Initialize the chipset.
4-3-1-4 Initialize refresh counter.
4-3-2-1 Check for Forced Flash.
4-3-2-2 Check HW status of ROM.
4-3-2-3 BIOS ROM is OK.
4-3-2-4 Do a complete RAM test.
4-3-3-1 Do OEM initialization.
4-3-3-2 Initialize interrupt controller.
4-3-3-3 Read in bootstrap code.
4-3-3-4 Initialize all vectors.
4-3-4-1 Boot the Flash program.
4-3-4-2 Initialize the boot device.
4-3-4-3 Boot code was read OK.



How to calibrate Olivetti PR2/PR2E Passbook Printer

How to calibrate Olivetti PR2/PR2E Passbook Printer




Olivetti passbook printers are widely used printer in post offices. Sometimes we find problem with printer when it stops printing. In that case, calibrating the printer can solve your problem.

Follow the steps to calibrate Olivetti PR2/PR2E passbook printer:

1. Switch off the printer.

2. Open the top cover of the printer and keep Head of printer at extreme left side.

3. Press all three buttons ("Station 1", "Local" and "Station 2") and then switch on the printer. Printer will give a beep sound.

4. Now close the top cover of the printer and press "Station 1" two times. The print Head will start moving and roller will start rolling.

5. Now press "Station 2" once and then add a paper to the printer and again press"Station 2".

6. Printer should take paper inside and all LEDs should blink within 5-10 seconds.

7. If not, then keep pressing "Station 2" until all LEDs glow.

8. Now switch off the printer and take test print. To take test print, press "Station 2"and power on the printer.

9. If printer gives you the proper test page then congratulations, your printer has been troubleshooted.

Note: Calibrating a printer is not an easy task and you may do these steps three-four times to calibrate the printer properly


Friday, June 22, 2012

How To Restore NTLDR and Ntdetect.com From the Windows XP CD


How To Restore NTLDR and Ntdetect.com From the Windows XP CD

The NTLDR and Ntdetect.com files are important system files that are used by your computer to start the Windows XP operating system. These files can become damaged, corrupted or deleted for a number of reasons and are usually brought to your attention by the "NTLDR is Missing" error message.
Follow these easy steps to restore the damaged/corrupted or missing NTLDR and Ntdetect.com files from the Windows XP CD using the Recovery Console.
Difficulty: Easy
Time Required: Restoring the NTLDR and Ntdetect.com files from the Windows XP CD usually takes less than 15 minutes
Here's How:
2.   When you reach the command prompt (detailed in Step 6 in the link above), type the following two commands, pressing Enter after each one:
copyd:\i386\ntldr c:\
copyd:\i386\ntdetect.com c:\
In the command listed above, d represents the drive letter assigned to the optical drive that your Windows XP CD is currently in. While this is most often d, your system could assign a different letter. Also, c:\ represents the root folder of the partition that Windows XP is currently installed on. Again, this is most often the case but your system could be different.
3.   If you're prompted to overwrite either of the two files, press Y.
4.   Take out the Windows XP CD, type exit and then press Enter to restart your PC.
Assuming that missing or corrupt versions of the NTLDR and/or Ntdetect.com files were your only issues, Windows XP should now start normally.

How To Restore Hal.dll From the Windows XP CD


How To Restore Hal.dll From the Windows XP CD

The hal.dll file is a hidden file that is used by Windows XP to communicate with your computer's hardware. Hal.dll can become damaged, corrupted or deleted for a number of reasons and is usually brought to your attention by the "missing or corrupt hal.dll" error message.
Follow these easy steps to restore the damaged/corrupted or missing hal.dll file from the Windows XP CD using the Recovery Console.
Difficulty: Easy
Time Required: Restoring hal.dll from the Windows XP CD usually takes less than 15 minutes
Here's How:
2.    When you reach the command line prompt (detailed in Step 6 in the link above), type the following and then press Enter:
3.  expand d:\i386\hal.dl_ c:\windows\system32
Using the expand command as shown above, d represents the drive letter assigned to the optical drive that your Windows XP CD is currently in. While this is most often d, your system could assign a different letter. Also, c:\windows represents the drive and folder that Windows XP is currently installed on. Again, this is most often the case but your system could be different.
4.    If you're prompted to overwrite the file, press Y.
5.    Take out the Windows XP CD, type exit and then press Enter to restart your PC.
Assuming that a missing or corrupt hal.dll file was your only issue, Windows XP should now start normally.